A regular home security camera can see as far as 10-70 feet on a clear and sunny day. Meanwhile, high-end cameras designed to capture long distances can snag clear images at a further distance of up to 180 feet.
This capture range of a security camera depends on various factors related to the hardware specifications of the security camera and the environment.
In this article, I’ll talk more about these factors and how to optimize your camera to cover your points of interest with optimal readability.
Key Things to Know
- A regular home security camera can see as far as 70 feet under the right conditions.
- The most significant factor that affects the range of a security camera is the focal length. Longer focal lengths can see further away and record distant objects with better accuracy.
- The resolution, installation location, and environment also contribute to the maximum distance a security camera can “see”.
- High-range security cameras are more suited for large-scale surveillance such as public venues or commercial properties.
- You can calculate exact values on how readable you want the camera to be at a specific distance using the guidelines in the DORI standard.
Factors That Affect the Visibility Range of a Security Camera
Manufacturers of security cameras don’t always tout “Maximum visibility range” as a primary feature because it varies constantly based on several factors.
- Focal Length: This determines how much light is focused on the camera sensor. Simply put, higher focal lengths help the camera to close up on objects at far distances, at the cost of its field of view (FOV).
- Resolution: Full HD or 4K cameras can observe further distances while maintaining image clarity. Lower-resolution cameras may cover the same distance, but the clarity of the images may be compromised.
- Location and Installation: The positioning of your camera makes a massive difference. When installed too high, it might miss out on lower details; set too low, it may not get the full view.
- Environmental Factors: Weather conditions, lighting, and obstacles can also significantly impact a camera’s vision. For example, a camera can catch images from a more considerable distance under optimal lighting conditions.
1. Focal Length
The focal length refers to the distance between the camera’s image sensor and the lens (which helps focus light onto the sensor plate).
Longer Focal Lengths
A longer focal length means that these two components are spaced relatively apart, allowing light from faraway objects to reach the sensor while reducing the ones coming in from the camera’s periphery.
This helps capture faraway objects in more detail. However, since it closes off to the light rays coming in at the edges, the field of view is narrowed.
Shorter Focal Lengths
For cameras with a shorter focal length, the opposite happens: more light is absorbed from its immediate surroundings so it creates a wider perspective.
Security cameras will either come with a fixed focal lens or a varifocal lens such as an optical zooming camera, or a PTZ camera, which can record a wide-angle shot, with the option to zoom in and out whenever necessary.
Resolution simply refers to the maximum amount of pixels that can be recorded by a camera. So with more pixels, the chances to capture more details of a faraway object or scene are very high.
Security cameras with a higher resolution (say, 4K or 1080p Full HD) can easily capture far-away objects compared to standard-definition ones. On top of that, the footage is much clearer and easy to read overall.
3. Location and Installation
Where you install the camera and how well you set it up will affect the maximum achievable visibility range of your security cameras.
So decide on the range of the camera based on what you need to monitor. Then, purchase one that’s optimal for your requirements, and make sure to install it in a location that’s got a proper angle within the range you need.
4. Surrounding Environment
Factors such as the weather, lighting, and obstructions can also impact your security camera’s ability to record clearly at larger distances.
So don’t decide purely on hardware specs, check the installation location before you set up the cameras and make sure it doesn’t limit or block the camera’s range.
- If the area has very poor lighting, invest in a camera with long-range infrared (20-100ft).
- Additionally, you can supplement the lighting with infrared LEDs or regular lights and spotlights if your camera supports full-color night vision
- If you have blinding fog or issues with condensation, invest in a camera with anti-fogging (and anti-condensation) technologies such as wipers, heated lenses, and anti-fog coating.
- Also, make it a habit to clean the camera regularly and also
- For outdoor cameras, always note down the IP rating and ensure they are officially rated as weather-proof/resistant (IP67 or more is best).
DORI Standard: How To Compare Distance Against Footage Clarity?
Understanding the maximum range, where objects remain readable, will help you pick the right device to cater to your surveillance needs.
However, the further the range, the less information that will be captured; hence, you need to prioritize footage readability as well.
What distance you want to monitor and at which level of clarity is a very subjective topic, so be sure to check out our article on DORI and Pixels Per Foot (PPF).
It will help you calculate distance and readability to decide on the optimal camera specs for your specific surveillance needs.
6 Tips to Maximize Coverage and Visibility Range of Your Security Cameras
- Prioritize entrances and other choke points. These can be doors, windows, backyards, corridors, driveways and gates
- Set up cameras to cover vehicles, valuables, and areas where guests and strangers would frequent. These include cash registers, parking areas, front desks, and sidewalks.
- Install cameras at a slightly higher elevation (around 9ft from the ground), this helps capture faces and maintain a naturally wider perspective without being too vulnerable to intruders.
- Use PTZ cameras with appropriate optical zoom if you have wide open spaces to monitor, such as a large backyard, field, compound, or parking lot.
- Set up AI object detection algorithms, such as person, and vehicle detection to minimize false positives due to motion detection and to receive alerts whenever significant objects come into the camera’s FOV.
- Prioritize high-resolution cameras whenever possible. These will always capture clear and readable footage, regardless of whether you’re zoomed in or out.
- Watch out for blind spots. If you have any blindspots after setting up your wider cameras, install smaller cameras with a large enough FOV to cover these as well.
- Set up cameras with infrared night vision for low-illuminated areas; however, be sure to check the infrared range before purchasing.
Standard security cameras have a vision range of roughly 10 to 70 feet on a clear and sunny day. Specific long-range models, with high-end optical zoom and other features, can extend this significantly.
The most influential factors that affect the capture distance in a security camera include the focal length, resolution, installation location, and environmental conditions.
So it’s important to consider these factors and also use the DORI standard to decide on a security camera that suits your needs and doesn’t break the bank.
Remember, it’s not always about how far a camera can see, but how accurately it can view objects or points of interest.